The discipline was established in the early s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud , who retained the term psychoanalysis for his own school of thought,  and stemmed partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Psychoanalysis was later developed in different directions, mostly by students of Freud, such as Alfred Adler and his collaborator, Carl Gustav Jung , [iii] as well as by neo-Freudian thinkers, such as Erich Fromm , Karen Horney , and Harry Stack Sullivan. Psychoanalysis has been known to be a controversial discipline, and its validity as a science is often contested. Nonetheless, it remains a strong influence within psychiatry , more so in some quarters than others.
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Freud proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place during five psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido roughly translated as sexual drives or instincts on a different area of the body. As a person grows physically certain areas of their body become important as sources of potential frustration erogenous zones , pleasure or both. Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build-up of libido sexual energy and that all pleasure came from its discharge.
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The anal stage is the second stage in Sigmund Freud 's theory of psychosexual development , lasting from age 18 months to three years. According to Freud, the anus is the primary erogenous zone and pleasure is derived from controlling bladder and bowel movement. The major conflict issue during this stage is toilet training. A fixation at this stage can result in a personality that is too rigid or one that is too disordered. According to Freud's theory, personality developed through a series of stages throughout childhood.